Geographical Maps are maps of a certain scale that show a part of the earth on a plane with geographic features and a coordinate grid.
A map is the display of map information on the plane with special signs by reducing the bird’s-eye view of the earth or a part of it to a certain extent for a specific use.
Nowadays, there are many types of maps for needs. Geographical maps, one of the map types, are likened to physical and topographic maps. As a general definition, physical maps are maps that show mountain, plain, river, lake, valley, plateau, peak, etc. land forms on a certain plane. With these maps, it gives detailed information about the earth formations of any region on earth. A topographic map is the representation of natural or artificial details of a part of the earth with contour lines on a plane of a certain scale size. These maps allow us to think in 3D by showing the elevation of the terrain, contours, mountains, valleys, ridges, necks, waterline lines, cliffs, triangulation points on a 2D plane. Contour curves and containing elevation elements are the most important criteria that distinguish it from other maps.
Turkey Geographic Map
When we examine the earth, it is seen that it differs from region to region and has different landforms. To show these changes, physical maps that show mountains, valleys, plateaus, streams, peaks and elevation of the earth in various colors are used. The Physical Map of Turkey shows the geographical formations that have occurred in our country, which is rich in landforms, and the elevation information of the earth in detail. Turkey Physical Map is also used as Turkey Geographical Map in terms of containing geographical figures.
World Geographic Map
Today, with the increase in knowledge and experience from the past, the number of unexplored places in the world has decreased in parallel with the developments in the field of technology. It is not possible for a person to physically visit the discovered places. For this reason, maps play an important role in providing information about most places in the world.
The World Geographical Map is very comprehensive as it covers the whole world and includes general geographical formations. Geographical maps do not only give information about physical formations. It also provides information about human factors. For example; When the World Geographical Map is examined, it is seen that the highest mountains are located in the Asian continent and this situation directly affects the climate and settlement of the region.
Geographical Indication Maps
Geographical Indication Maps are maps with geographical indications of a particular region. Geographical indication mostly occurs as a result of product-space relationship and has various definitions. Some of these definitions are as follows:
“Coğrafi işaretler her şeyden önce ‘kaynak kimlikleri’ dir. Yani belli bir toprak parçası veya bu toprak parçasında yer alan bir bölge veya alandan kaynaklanan ürünleri tanımlamak için kullanılırlar. Coğrafi işaretler aynı zamanda ‘kalite göstergeleri’ dir. Tüketicilerin, belli bir bölgeden gelen ürünlerin kalite, ün veya diğer özelliklerinin esas olarak coğrafi menşeinden kaynaklandığını bilmelerine yardımcı olurlar. Coğrafi işaretler bunlara ek olarak belli bir bölgenin ‘ticari çıkarları’ nı temsil ederler. Yani coğrafi işaretler belli bir coğrafi alanın ürünlerini desteklemek için vardır.”
Source: STOLL, Robert L., “TRIPs Implementation on Geographical Indications”, APEC IPR International Symposium, Taejon, (14-18 Haziran 1999), ss.1, 2.
“… belirli bir coğrafi yöre, alan veya bölge adı ile anılan ürünlerin korunmasını sağlayan bir hak”
Source: YALÇINER, Uğur G., “Türkiye’deki Coğrafi İşaretlerin Tescil İşlemlerinin Tamamlanmasının Önemi”, Finansal Forum, (9 Temmuz 2000).
Countries use various ways to develop their economies. One of these ways is to highlight original and unrecognized products in the global economy, especially in closed economies. These days, in an increasingly competitive economic environment, unrecognized products are used to gain a share from the market. Geographical indications may differ from region to region. In addition to the independent variables affecting the climate, soil structure, aspect and altitude geographical indications; Human factors such as history, culture, tradition, lifestyles, working life, creativity, curiosity, interest and labor are the dependent variables that affect geographical indications. These elements enable the product to be heard with its geographical source and to reach fame on a local or global scale.
Geography Climate Map
Geographic climate maps provide information about the climatic features of a particular region. Thanks to the climate maps, information about the climatic conditions of the region can be obtained or a comparison of the climatic characteristics of different regions can be made. Climate is one of the main factors that directly affect living things. According to the climate of the region, factors such as human life, living conditions, customs and traditions, economy, settlement, etc. may change.
Climate maps provide us with information about an area’s temperature, precipitation, humidity, sunshine duration, cloudiness, wind direction, speed, etc. In addition to these, it can also show climate change over time in the same region.
In climate maps, different classifications have been developed to describe climate zones. The most widely used is the classification introduced by Wladimir Koppen in the early 1900s.
Geographical Map Drawing
Maps can be created by hand using the traditional drawing method, as well as by modern digital drawing methods, which are more preferred today. Recently, maps have been created using CAD (CAD-Computer Aided Design) or GIS (GIS-Geographic Information Systems) programs.
There are various programs in the field of geographic information systems. One of these programs is MapInfo Pro. You can create your various maps or geographical maps thanks to the Advanced module in the MapInfo Pro interface. The training video below explains how the physical/geographic map is prepared.
Meaning of Colors on a Geographical Map
The colors used in the geographical maps are the same as the physical map colors. Streams are shown in blue, lakes and seas vary in shades of blue depending on the depth of the water. Light blue tones are preferred in places where the depth of the water is low (shallow), and dark blue tones are used in places where the water is deep.
Colors change upwards from sea level:
- — Green between 0 m – 200 m,
- — Light Green between 200 m – 500 m,
- — Yellow between 500 m and 1000 m,
- — Orange between 1000 m – 1500 m,
- — Between 1500 m – 2000 m Brown,
- — Dark brown between 2000 m and 2500 m,
- — Above 2500 m is indicated with white color.
Although 2500 m is accepted as a permanent snow limit in our country, it varies from region to region.